top of page

Discover Monthly

Borderline Personality Disorder

What is Borderline Personality Disorder? 

According to the National Institute of Mental Health

(Borderline personality disorder is a mental illness marked by an ongoing pattern of varying moods, self-image, and behavior. These symptoms often result in impulsive actions and problems in relationships. People with borderline personality disorder may experience intense episodes of anger, depression, and anxiety that can last from a few hours to days.

General Statistics

  • Based on diagnostic interview data from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), Figure 1 shows the past year prevalence of U.S. adults aged 18 and older with personality disorders.

  • The prevalence of any personality disorder was 9.1% and borderline personality disorder was 1.4%.

  • Sex and race were not found to be associated with the prevalence of personality disorders.

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

"Borderline Personality Disorder, Self-Harm and Eating Disorders. In this video I talk about their relationship. Many of the symptoms of BPD lead us to acting out in SH or ED."



Borderline Personality Disorder: What Is Black-and-White Thinking?

By Andi Chrisman

"When I am speaking to a group about my history, I always list the typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD), since most people are unfamiliar with the diagnosis. One of the questions I am most frequently asked  is “What is black and white thinking?”. Usually, I will tell them sort of about a funny example from my life of the first time I ever saw myself thinking in black and white, which I will share later in the post, but first let me explain black-and-white thinking in detail."

Borderline Personality Disorder: How It Feels From the Inside

By Admin

"It’s easy for teens and adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to feel like they are the victims of a very cruel curse. This personality disorder is often characterized by an intense fear of abandonment, unstable relationships and impulsive behavior that ultimately drives people away. 'BPD makes me lash out, allowing some of the cruelest things to tumble from my mouth. And believe me, there are only so many times loved ones will forgive a lack of control,' one person writes. Young people that have this disorder describe what it’s like to live with it, in their own words."

When You Don't Fit the 'Classic' Definition of Borderline Personality Disorder

By Angela Abernathie 

"The comment was about how some depressed people don’t want to get better because they get used to feeling that way, so they just don’t try. Wow. But for those of us with clinical depression (or anxiety, bipolar disorder, etc.), more often than not we do want to get better. That is why we take our medications and go to therapy. Just like patients get treatment and have follow-up visits with their doctors. The list could go on of conditions that are medical and are, therefore, medically treated."

The Chemistry Behind BPD



"Someone with BPD, as discussed earlier, experiences many extreme symptoms, all of which are related to emotional disturbances. Many of these, as discovered by scientists, are a result of extremely low levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is the chemical that helps to maintain order and limit impulsivity. With low levels of serotonin, the patient becomes considerably more impulsive. A lack of Serotonin usually leads to criminal-like are. Someone with BPD, as discussed earlier, experiences many extreme symptoms, all of which are related to emotional disturbances. Many of these, as discovered by scientists,   behaviour, anger-related traits, violent suicidal behaviour, and impulsive aggression.  

         When there is a low amount of Serotonin in the brain, this means that Dopamine is predominantly present. According to studies, high amounts of Dopamine have the same, or quite similar, effects as a lack of Serotonin. This is because elevated levels of Dopamine directly correspond with aggression. The resulting aggression tends to be so severe that by the end of the aggressive phase, the patient almost fails to recognize angry expressions. The increased impulsivity causes the brain to remain less focused on certain tasks which is what causes impairment in simple tasks, such as reading and recognizing facial expressions.

How Does Treatment Help BPD?


"Treatment for BPD may involve individual or group psychotherapy, carried out by professionals within a community mental health team (CMHT).

The goal of a CMHT is to provide day-to-day support and treatment, while ensuring you have as much independence as possible.

A CMHT can be made up of:

  • social workers

  • community mental health nurses (who have specialist training in mental health conditions)

  • pharmacists

  • counsellors and psychotherapists

  • psychologists and psychiatrists (the psychiatrist is usually the senior clinician in the team)

  • occupational therapists

Care programme approach (CPA)

If your symptoms are moderate to severe, you'll probably be entered into a treatment process known as a care programme approach (CPA).

CPA is essentially a way of ensuring that you receive the right treatment for your needs. There are 4 stages:

  • an assessment of your health and social needs

  • a care plan – created to meet your health and social needs

  • the appointment of a care co-ordinator (keyworker) – usually a social worker or nurse and your first point of contact with other members of the CMHT

  • reviews – where your treatment is regularly reviewed and any necessary changes to the care plan can be agreed



Treatment for BPD usually involves some type of psychological therapy, also known as psychotherapy. There are lots of different types of psychotherapy, but they all involve taking time to help you get a better understanding of how you think and feel.

As well as listening and discussing important issues with you, the psychotherapist can suggest ways to resolve problems and, if necessary, help you change your attitudes and behaviour. Therapy for BPD aims to help people get a better sense of control over their thoughts and feelings.

Psychotherapy for BPD should only be delivered by a trained professional. They'll usually be a psychiatrist, psychologist or other trained mental health professional. Do not be afraid to ask about their experience.

The type of psychotherapy you choose may be based on a combination of personal preference and the availability of specific treatments in your local area. Treatment for BPD may last a year or longer, depending on your needs and how you live your life.

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a type of therapy specifically designed to treat people with BPD.

DBT is based on the idea that 2 important factors contribute towards BPD:

  • you are particularly emotionally vulnerable – for example, low levels of stress make you feel extremely anxious

  • you grew up in an environment where your emotions were dismissed by those around you – for example, a parent may have told you that you had no right to feel sad or you were just "being silly" if you complained of feelings of anxiety or stress

These 2 factors may cause you to fall into a negative cycle – you experience intense and upsetting emotions, yet feel guilty and worthless for having these emotions. Because of your upbringing, you think having these emotions makes you a bad person. These thoughts then lead to further upsetting emotions. 

The goal of DBT is to break this cycle by introducing 2 important concepts:

  • validation: accepting your emotions are valid, real and acceptable

  • dialectics: a school of philosophy that says most things in life are rarely "black or white" and that it's important to be open to ideas and opinions that contradict your own


The DBT therapist will use both concepts to try to bring about positive changes in your behaviour.

For example, the therapist could accept (validate) that feelings of intense sadness cause you to self-harm, and that behaving in such a way does not make you a terrible and worthless person.

However, the therapist would then attempt to challenge the assumption that self-harming is the only way to cope with feelings of sadness.

The ultimate goal of DBT is to help you "break free" of seeing the world, your relationships and your life in a very narrow, rigid way that leads you to engage in harmful and self-destructive behaviour.

DBT usually involves weekly individual and group sessions, and you'll be given an out-of-hours contact number to call if your symptoms get worse.

DBT is based on teamwork. You'll be expected to work with your therapist and the other people in your group sessions. In turn, the therapists work together as a team.

DBT has proved particularly effective in treating women with BPD who have a history of self-harming and suicidal behaviour. It's been recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as the first treatment for these women to try.

Visit Mind to find more information about DBT.

Mentalisation-based therapy (MBT)

Another type of long-term psychotherapy that can be used to treat BPD is mentalisation-based therapy (MBT).

MBT is based on the concept that people with BPD have a poor capacity to mentalise.

Mentalisation is the ability to think about thinking. This means examining your own thoughts and beliefs, and assessing whether they're useful, realistic and based on reality.

For example, many people with BPD will have a sudden urge to self-harm and then fulfil that urge without questioning it. They lack the ability to "step back" from that urge and say to themselves: "That's not a healthy way of thinking and I'm only thinking this way because I'm upset."

Another important part of mentalisation is to recognise that other people have their own thoughts, emotions, beliefs, wishes and needs, and your interpretation of other people's mental states may not necessarily be correct. In addition, you need to be aware of the potential impact your actions will have on other people's mental states.

The goal of MBT is to improve your ability to recognise your own and others' mental states, learn to "step back" from your thoughts about yourself and others and examine them to see if they're valid.

Initially, MBT may be delivered in a hospital, where you would stay as an inpatient. The treatment usually consists of daily individual sessions with a therapist and group sessions with other people with BPD.

A course of MBT usually lasts around 18 months. Some hospitals and specialist centres encourage you to remain as an inpatient during this time. Other hospitals and centres may recommend that you leave the hospital after a certain period of time but remain being treated as an outpatient, where you visit the hospital regularly.

Therapeutic communities (TCs)

Therapeutic communities (TCs) are structured environments where people with a range of complex psychological conditions and needs come together to interact and take part in therapy.

TCs are designed to help people with long-standing emotional problems and a history of self-harming by teaching them skills needed to interact socially with others.

Most TCs are residential, such as in large houses, where you stay for around 1 to 4 days a week.

As well as taking part in individual and group therapy, you would be expected to do other activities designed to improve your social skills and self-confidence, such as:

  • household chores

  • meal preparation

  • games, sports and other recreational activities

  • regular community meetings – where people discuss any issues that have arisen in the community


TCs are run on a democratic basis. This means that each resident and staff member has a vote on how the TC should be run, including whether a person is suitable for admission to that community.

Even if your care team thinks you may benefit from spending time in a TC, it does not automatically mean the TC will allow you to join.

Many TCs set guidelines on what is considered acceptable behaviour within the community, such as not drinking alcohol, no violence to other residents or staff, and no attempts at self-harming. Those who break these guidelines are usually told to leave the TC.

While some people with BPD have reported that the time spent in a TC helped their symptoms, there's not yet enough evidence to tell whether TCs would help everyone with BPD.

Also, because of the often strict rules on behaviour, a TC would probably not be suitable if a person were having significant difficulties controlling their behaviour.

Arts therapies

Arts or creative therapies may be offered individually or with a group as part of a treatment programme for people with BPD.

Therapies may include:

  • art therapy

  • dance movement therapy

  • drama therapy

  • music therapy

Arts therapies aim to help people who are finding it hard to express their thoughts and feelings verbally. The therapy focuses on creating something as a way of expressing your feelings.

The courses are run by trained therapists, who can help you to think about what you've created and whether it relates to your thoughts and experiences.

A course of arts therapy usually involves weekly sessions, which last up to 2 hours.

Treating a crisis

You'll probably be given several telephone numbers to use if you think you may be experiencing a crisis (when symptoms are particularly severe and you have an increased risk of self-harm).

One of these numbers is likely to be your community mental health nurse. Other numbers may include an out-of-hours number for social workers and your local crisis resolution team (CRT).

Crisis resolution teams support people with serious mental health conditions who are currently experiencing an acute and severe psychiatric crisis, which would require hospitalisation without the team's involvement. An example of a severe psychiatric crisis would be a suicide attempt.

People with BPD often find that simply talking to somebody who understands their condition can help bring them out of a crisis.

In a small number of cases, you may be given a short course of medicine, such as a tranquilliser, to calm your mood. This medicine is usually prescribed for 7 days.

If your symptoms are particularly severe and it's thought you pose a significant risk to your own health, you may be admitted to hospital – very occasionally via detention under the Mental Health Act, if you're unable to make appropriate decisions about your safety.

This will be for as short a time as possible and you should be able to return home once your symptoms improve. Doctors do their best to avoid detaining anyone unless it's absolutely essential.


Experts are divided over whether medicine is helpful. No medicine is currently licensed to treat BPD.

While medicine isn't recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, there's evidence that it may be helpful for certain problems in some people.

Medicines are often used if you have another associated mental health condition, such as:

Mood stabilisers or antipsychotics are sometimes prescribed to help mood swings, alleviate psychotic symptoms or reduce impulsive behaviour.

Books That Effectively Portray BPD


TRIGGER WARNING: Suicidal Ideation, Psychiatric Hospitalization, BPD

Check a website like to make sure it won't be too triggering for you!

girl interrupted.webp

Girl, Interrupted

by Susanna Kaysen


"In 1967, after a session with a psychiatrist she'd never seen before, eighteen-year-old Susanna Kaysen was put in a taxi and sent to McLean Hospital. She spent most of the next two years in the ward for teenage girls in a psychiatric hospital as renowned for its famous clientele—Sylvia Plath, Robert Lowell, James Taylor, and Ray Charles—as for its progressive methods of treating those who could afford its sanctuary."

the bell jar.webp

The Bell Jar

by Sylvia Plath


"Sylvia Plath's shocking, realistic, and intensely emotional novel about a woman falling into the grip of insanity. 

Esther Greenwood is brilliant, beautiful, enormously talented, and successful, but slowly going under—maybe for the last time. In her acclaimed and enduring masterwork, Sylvia Plath brilliantly draws the reader into Esther's breakdown with such intensity that her insanity becomes palpably real, even rational—as accessible an experience as going to the movies.A deep penetration into the darkest and most harrowing corners of the human psyche, The Bell Jar is an extraordinary accomplishment and a haunting American classic."

get me out of here.webp

Get Me Out of Here: My Recovery From Borderline Personality Disorder

by Rachel Reiland


"With astonishing honesty, this memoir reveals what mental illness looks and feels like from the inside, and how healing from borderline personality disorder is possible through intensive therapy and the support of loved ones.

With astonishing honesty, this memoir, Get Me Out of Here, reveals what mental illness looks and feels like from the inside, and how healing from borderline personality disorder is possible through intensive therapy and the support of loved ones. A mother, wife, and working professional, Reiland was diagnosed with borderline personality disorder at the age of 29—a diagnosis that finally explained her explosive anger, manipulative behaviors, and self-destructive episodes including bouts of anorexia, substance abuse, and promiscuity. A truly riveting read with a hopeful message."

Celebrity Advocates



"Davidson had some genuine (and some funny) things to say about what it’s like living with BPD, from how he’s in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) — 'It’s steps, it’s thought processing, you have these thoughts, you have these feelings, you have these urges, you’re going to freak out. Try waiting it out 10 minutes. Try going for a walk.' — to his fear of abandonment — 'When people say they’re leaving and coming back, I get a really big fear that they’re not coming back.'"

Blog-Nessa_DSC_9299_1920width (1).jpg

"'I wish that I had a person that was releasing music or openly advocating for mental health, to [help me] realize that there’s a lot of people that go through it,' the 19-year-old told Seventeen magazine. 'If I saw an artist that was successful and they still dealt with mental health, then I would have known it was okay for me as well.'"

She records a lot of her songs about her experience with her mental health and also recorded a podcast with Call Her Daddy about her journey with BPD.

We are not experts and do not seek to diagnose or act in place of professional psychiatric treatment. We are an organization seeking to raise awareness and shed light on different conditions. If you have concerns or questions about any of the material, please feel free to send us an email or fill out our contact form.
bottom of page